Submit a term paper on The Effect of Smoking on Heart Rate and Breath Rate. Your paper should be a minimum of 1500 words in length. Dietrich et al (2007) performed a cross-sectional study-SAPALDIA (Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults) between  .2001-2003. They observed ETS-associated increases in heart rate and, more weakly, in DBP, consistent with increases in sympathetic stimulation. Ultrafine particles are associated with oxidative stress, as well as with reduced HRV. In conclusion, the study contributed to the evidence that exposure to second-hand smoke increases cardiac risk through cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Protection from passive smoking can benefit health. on changes in cardiac autonomic function, specifically, in a commercial airport as measured by HR and HRV in a panel of adult nonsmokers. The authors suggested that altered cardiac autonomic function, as reflected by decrements in HRV, may be part of the pathophysiologic mechanisms by which exposure to ETS leads to increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Maziak et al (2005) mentioned that exposure to ETS causes deleterious effects in the respiratory system of adults and children in Syria. Exposure to ETS was assessed from multiple self-reported indices combined into a composite score (maximum 22), while outcomes included both self-report (symptoms/ diagnosis of asthma, bronchitis, and hay fever), and objective indices (spirometric assessment of FEV1 and FVC). They evaluated the relation between ETS score and studied outcomes as well as the association between ETS exposure and respiratory health. The results indicated that there was a significant dose-response pattern in the relationship of ETS score with symptoms of asthma, hay fever, and bronchitis, but not with diagnoses of these outcomes. This study provided evidence for the extensive exposure to ETS among adult nonsmokers in Syria, and its dose-response relationship with respiratory symptoms of infectious and noninfectious nature. It also called for an elaborate effort to increase awareness of this public health problem and to enforce regulations aimed at protecting non-smokers.
Effect of Smoking on Heart Rate and Breath Rate
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