Ethical Argument

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IntroductionEthical ArgumentExplanation and DefenseObjection and ResponseConclusionThe paper should be between 1,300 and 1,500 words, utilize three scholarly resources, and include a title page and reference page.Part 1: IntroductionIn this section of the paper, you will begin with your ethical question, introduce the topic and paper, and close with a thesis statement.The ethical question may be the same as your Week 3 written assignment (“Applying an Ethical Theory”) or a revised version of it.The introduction should be revised in a way that reflects your additional thinking on the issue and question.End this section with a thesis statement that states your position on the issue (the answer to the ethical question you believe is strongest) and provides a brief summary of the main ideas you will be presenting in the paper. Please see the assignment guidance for examples of thesis statements.Place the introduction under the Part 1: Introduction heading.Part 2: Ethical ArgumentIn this section of the paper, you will present the strongest argument you can in support of the position you have stated in your introduction.This will be similar to the “supporting reasons” you offered in the first assignment; however, this argument should reflect your research into the key ethical issues that need to be identified and addressed, the arguments on different sides of this problem, and the theories of moral reasoning we have studied in the class (you will discuss the specific details and implications of the moral theories in the next two sections).You can think of this as a summary of the main argument you would give if you were an attorney trying to convince a jury of your position.Place this information under the Part 2: Ethical Argument heading.Part 3: Explanation and DefenseIn this section, you will explain and defend your argument by drawing on the moral theory that aligns most closely with the argument you presented in Part 2. This may be the same theory you discussed in your second assignment, but it may also be a different theory.You must first explain the theory in general terms similar to how you explained a theory in your second assignment, including a brief account of the historical background of the theory and the philosopher(s) associated with it and general overview of the core moral ideal or principle of the theory, including the way it guides and constrains moral reasoning.You should then clearly show how your argument represents an application of that form of moral reasoning.In other words, if the argument you present in Part 2 is utilitarian, deontological, or virtue-based (teleological), you will want to explain utilitarianism, deontology, or virtue ethics in general terms, then explain how your argument from Part 2 reflects or draws upon the core principles and values of that theory. Please refer to the Week 3 assignment instructions for directions on how to explain and apply the moral theory.Place this section under the Part 3: Explanation and Defense heading.Part 4: Objection and ResponseIn this section of the paper, you will present the strongest objection you can to your argument, and briefly defend that objection by appealing to a different ethical theory than the one you focused on in Part 3.Briefly explain the core moral ideal or principle of the theory and how that could be the basis of an objection to your argument. For instance, if you explained and defended your own argument by applying the principles of virtue ethics, you could raise an objection from the perspective of utilitarianism by briefly explaining the core utilitarian principle and how applying that principle could lead someone to a different conclusion than the one you are defending.Next, you should respond to the objection by explaining why it is not strong enough to undermine the main argument in defense of your position.See the assignment guidance for suggestions on how to effectively respond to the objection.Place this section under the Part 4: Objection and Response heading.Part 5: ConclusionIn this section of the paper, provide a summary of what you have done in the paper by briefly describing what you accomplished in each of the above sections.Place this section under the Part 5: Conclusion heading.Resource RequirementYou must use at least three scholarly resources, only one of which may be the textbook. In other words, you must use at least two scholarly resources in addition to the textbook.Acceptable ways of using a source include providing a quotation, summary, or paraphrase; merely providing a citation, especially when it is unclear how or where the text supports your claim, is not sufficient.If you need help with finding additional resources or are unsure about whether a particular resource will count toward the requirement, please contact your instructor.For sources to count toward the resources requirement, they must be cited within the text of your paper and on the reference page. Sources that are listed on the references page but not cited within the paper do not count toward fulfilling the resources requirement.In your paper,Introduce the topic and paper.Provide a thesis statement.Present an argument in support of the position.Defend the argument by explaining and applying the ethical theory that most closely aligns with the argument.Present an objection to the argument by appealing to a different ethical theory.Respond to the objection.Provide a conclusion that describes what was accomplished in each of the sections of the paper.The Ethical Reasoning Final PaperMust be 1,300 to 1,500 words in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s APA Style  (Links to an external site.)resource.Must include a separate title page with the following:Title of paperStudent’s nameCourse name and numberInstructor’s nameDate submittedFor further assistance with the formatting and the title page, refer to APA Formatting for Word 2013 (Links to an external site.).Must utilize academic voice. See the Academic Voice (Links to an external site.) resource for additional guidance.Must use at least two scholarly sources in addition to the course text.The Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.) table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment.Must document any information used from sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.) guide. (Links to an external site.)Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. See the Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.) resource in the Ashford Writing Center for specifications.Running head: Parental consent on abortion for minor               Should a minor have to get parental consent before obtaining an abortion?                                                            Leyvis Taveras                                           PHI 208: Ethics and Moral Reasoning                                                        Prof. Robert Gertz                                                           June 26, 2019 Parental consent on abortion for minor                                                                       2                          Parental consent before obtaining an abortion? Part 1: Ethical Question Should a minor have to get parental consent before obtaining an abortion?  Part 2: Introduction Abortion is a serious issue and a concerning topic for many parents. According to Guttmacher institute, “there are currently thirty-seven states that require parental involvement in a minor’s decision to have an abortion. Teen pregnancy is a stressful experience for a minor and a sensitive topic to face with her parents. Statistic in the last decade had shown that teen pregnancy had gone down, according to CDC.gov, ” In 2017, a total of 194,377 babies were born to women aged 15- 19 years, for a birth rate of 18.8 per 1,000 women in this age group. This is another record low for U.S. teens and a drop of 7% from 2016″, nevertheless in this last year there had been numerous debate about the right a parent have to consent or know if her teen is having a abortion, many agree that it’s the right of the underage child while others dispute that a parent have all the right to know when the young child is having an abortion. While some of this pregnancy are from statutory rape in which its understandable why the abortion will be necessary, parent have the right to know everything that is pertaining their children health and an abortion is no different as to any other procedure since it can be life threatening procedure, furthermore Abortion can lead to physical and psychological harm in addition parent can provide moral support and guidance for her underage child who is Parental consent on abortion for minor                                                                           3 facing early pregnancy. The Law of parental consent when it come to a minor getting an abortion change from state to state. In other states you don’t have to get permission, but your parents will have to know that you’re getting an abortion. This can be bypass by judge, which mean the judge will have to give permission to have an abortion without telling your parents. This is called “judicial bypass”. In the state of Florida where I reside, requires that one of the parents be told of the minor decision 48 hours before the abortion. A judge can excuse the minor from this requirement. According to Planned Parenthood. Parental consent statutes were initially enacted in response to the fact that many minor women become pregnant each year, and a significant number of these consider having, and actually have, abortions. In this paper I will discuss why should or shouldn’t a minor need consent to get an abortion.”Despite the fact that parents generally have the best interests of their children in mind and they are legally liable for any costs or complications resulting from their minor daughter’s abortion, [in California] a minor under the age of 14 cannot use a tanning bed under any circumstance, but she can have an abortion without telling her parents. (Rudavsky, 2019). As Parent we look for the best interest for our children, yes, a parent may get upset at the fact that her child is pregnant at a early age, but a parent will also be the best support system that young lady have. As a parent we are legally responsible for our children’s and being involved in something as important as the decision to abort a pregnancy is a moral responsibility. A parent can help that child make the best decision and give the best advices.  Parental consent on abortion for minor                                                                          4 Part 3: Explanation of the Ethical Theory Abortion-rights opponents almost universally claim that abortion is murder and should be legally prohibited because the fetus is a moral person at the moment of conception. (Himma KE, 2005). The ethics of abortion has been a battleground between those that advocate prochoice and the one that advocate prolife. Warren preserves an extremely non-judgmental view on abortion, according to which abortion is morally acceptable at any stage of the pregnancy and under any circumstances. When I think about killing a baby inside of any woman, I think of many question, especially after coming across with so many debate in favor and in cons.  As a moral question Can an abortion be considered a justify killing or murder? When does life begin?  According to Thomas Sadler “The development of a human begins with fertilization, a process by which the spermatozoon from the male and the oocyte from the female unite to give rise to a new organism, the zygote.” Life begin at fertilization, which mean that a baby already part of a woman as soon the egg is fertilize. Michael Tooley (1972) argues that “an organism possesses a serious right to life only if it possesses the concept of a self as a continuing subject of experiences and other mental states and believes that it is itself such a continuing entity” (p. 44). He goes on to say that “a newborn baby does not possess the concept of a continuing self, any more than a newborn kitten possesses such a concept. If so, infanticide during a time interval shortly after birth must be morally acceptable” (p. 64). Its absurd to say that someone is old enough to have a Parental consent on abortion for minor                                                                           5 baby, Minor are not mature enough to handle obligations that a child entail, nevertheless abortion can be intimidating for a young child and bring many other consequences. Having a child is a responsibility no to be taking a lightly at any age. One of the consequences to an early pregnancy is school dropout. There are many other options other than an abortion. Many couple that can have children always looking to adopt a child. Which sound more ethical that taking always an innocent life.  Since the fetus is already a human, we can say that it has certain and all human have the right to live. Many people get fixed on terminologist like zygote, embryo or fetus, not realizing that those are just stages of life, just like developmental stages, infant, toddler, and teenager. At the very least, some argue, if there’s even a possibility that a fetus is an innocent person, we ought to err on the side of assuming that it is and forbid abortion, given the moral gravity of killing the innocent. (Thames, 2018). Part 4: Application of the Ethical Theory A fetus has a moral right to development and to live nevertheless it is not an unqualified claim against all other contemplations.  There are many that object with warren theory, claiming that If killing a baby is permissible because they are not filled develop or a fledged members of the moral community, then, by the same standard, killing a newborns baby would be acceptable too.  And what make it ethical right? (Thames, 2018). Tothis issue let me bring in the view of Immanuel Kant, who is a firm believer Parental consent on abortion for minor                                                                          6 that “ant would believe that under no circumstance would an abortion be justifiable because it would be murder to him, tying back to the idea that no person has the right to interfere with another person’s right to life . In this case we can look and apply the utilitarianism, which said that the action taken should have the greatest positive impact with the least amount of negative consequence. Let refresh a little on the negative consequence an abortion can have on a minor child, according to americanpregnancy.org, abortion can impact a underage emotional and psychological, many feel a mild regret to more serious complications such as depression”. Arnold, C. (2006). As utilitarianism imply the “least amount of negative consequence, looking at all the side effect of that an abortion in a young can bring, utilitarianism, is the most applicable theory to the issue of abortion. Utilitarian view believe that ethical value of any act is determined by the maximum amount of happiness. (Thames, 2018). Looking at the prolife argument in which abortion is unethical, the fetus is considered an human being and many people may be happy, greatest principle of happiness suggest that utilitarian theory does not endorse this view because as per principle many people may be happy or unhappy with the decision of abortion. Utilitarian endorse abortion on the basic of personal life, principle of greatest happiness and individual right. Abortion should be something that the minor child should decide according to that person own situation and the child should have their own right to decide who to discloses what happen with their body Parental consent on abortion for minor                                                                                  7 References Parental Involvement in Minors’ Abortions. (2019, June 03). Retrieved June 08, 2019, from https://www.guttmacher.org/state-policy/explore/parental-involvement-minors-abortions  Arnold, C. (2006, July 26). Flexibility Built into Mass. Abortion Law. Retrieved June 11, 2019, from https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5582900 Sadler, T.W. Langman’s Medical Embryology. 7th edition. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins 1995, p. 3] Himma KE A dualist analysis of abortion: personhood and the concept of self qua experiential subject Journal of Medical Ethics 2005;31:48-55 Thames, B. (2018). How should one live? Introduction to ethics and moral reasoning (3rd ed.).  San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education Plannedparenthood.org. (2019). Parental Consent & Notification Laws | Teen Abortion Laws. from : https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/teens/preventing-pregnancystds/parental-consent-and-notification-laws [Accessed 26 May 2019]. Parental consent on abortion for minor                                                                                                                8 Arnold, C. (2006, July 26). Flexibility Built into Mass. Abortion Law. Retrieved June 11, 2019, from https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5582900

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