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Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell components and organelles

RELATE THE STRUCTURE OF EUKARYOTIC AND PROKARYOTIC CELL COMPONENTS AND ORGANELLES. The essay is to be 3 pages with three to five sources, with in-text citations and a reference page.The function of the plasma membrane in prokaryotes is to lend protection and act as a permeability barrier. In Eukaryotes the plasma membrane also consists of phospholipid layers and performs the same function as that in the prokaryotes.However, in prokaryotes, the structure of plasma membrane consists of hopanoids which are taken to be structural equivalent of sterols found in the Eukaryotic plasma membrane (Rohmer et al, 1984). Hopanoids help prokaryotic cells to adjust cell permeability and adapt to environmental conditions.The most basic difference between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells lies in the position of the DNA and this is basically reflected in their names. In a Eukaryotic cell most of DNA is in the cell organelle called nucleus which is bounded by a double membrane each of which is made up of phospholipids and proteins. The nucleus is the largest organelle in the eukaryotic cell. In case of a Prokaryotic cell, the DNA material lies concentrated in a region known as nucleiod which is not membrane bound.Ribosomes are present in prokaryotic as well as Eukaryotic cells. This cell organelle is slightly smaller in the Prokaryotes than in the Eukaryotes. In Prokaryotes, the ribosome is 70S and is about 2700kd in mass. The Eukaryotic ribosome are slightly larger and consist of 2 sub-units- a larger 60S subunit and a smaller 40S subunit which come together to form a 80S unit which is heavier at 4200kd (Stryer et al, 2002). Even though ribosome is involved in protein synthesis, the Eukaryotic protein synthesis is different from prokaryotic protein synthesis since in Eukaryotes the initiator tRNA is methionine while in case of Prokaryotes the initiator is a specialized tRNA.Prokaryotes lack mitochondria which in Eukaryotes serve as site of cellular respiration and plays pivotal role in metabolism. The structure of the mitochondria in a Eukaryotic cell is sausage shapes, with smooth outer membrane but folded inner

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