Compose a 250 words assignment on the impact of using multimedia in an online learning setting for college students. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of multimedia in an online learning setting for college students and the multimedia considerations that must be prioritized so as to achieve quality education. This literature review is divided into 9 main topics: (a) Knowing more of the Audience and the use of Videos as a Tool, ( (b) Establishing Technology in a Learning Perspective, (c) Focusing on the Instructional Design, (d) Technology for Support and not to cause Distraction, (e) Multiple Representations Integration, (f) Gradually Launch Multimedia, (g) Existing Multimedia are Good Resources too, (h) Becoming More Interactive and Motivated, and (I) Summary. The fast improvement of modern technology has resulted in a profound change in how people live their lives now, thus, making it a part of their lives as it delivers the latest and the advanced information. In the educational field, technologys fast progression makes efficiency and effectiveness more demanding as the identification of what works best is the number one priority. educators need to identify which particular technology will improve and develop the learners acquired knowledge. It is necessary to determine the impact of technology on learning for at this point in time, learning does not just happen in the four walls of classroom. it has moved to another phase, online. Technology plays a significant role in the educational world as it creates opportunities for both the learners and the educators, and those opportunities have become the educational fields target in order to attain quality learning. For instance, technology acts as the medium to access multimedia content that is rich, to offer online learning, to avail the devices that can be outsourced from the use of Internet, to experience the social networking that gives avenue to knowledge, and to use websites for a more developmental education. Sankey, Birch, and Gardiner (2011) stated that educational technology and its modernization have come to give meaningful opportunities for teachers, especially for online teachers, to create an improved, stimulating, and more wide-ranging curriculum. Now, technology is inevitably a part of the learning process to achieve the learning goals. It is now expected to be the source of information that can be an important factor in the learning process. However, the use of technology also presents a challenging scenario. For example, making decisions on the kind of technological tools that will be used is not just a natural thing, for there is an array of technology to choose from. There has to be a particular technology that must be considered in order to enhance the students learning. However, the WH-questions, when, where, how and why one uses that particular technology, makes way to the idea that it is where the learning depends on (Whitton, 2009). Young people, including those who are in college, use technology and the Internet to sustain and manage their learning, and there is existing evidence of how they do it (Whitton, 2009). A particular technology being taken into consideration as evidence is multimedia. Multimedia is a transmission that brings together media of communication, be it a text or graphics and sounds (Thangarajath & Enok, 2012). It is a single application, an interactive one that puts together graphical images, text, animation, color, audio sound, and full-motion video. It potentially creates an avenue for the learners improvement of understanding as it presents an animation and a narration in a learning system. The use of multimedia, considered an educational resource gives an avenue to develop the students knowledge. Many of the aspects being presented now in the field of multimedia have existed before, but multimedia is a combination of one aspect, audio-visual, making it a more innovative tool, and is now accessible to both students and teachers. Srivastava (2012) indicated that multimedia with interactive platforms unites the five major types of media into a learning environment, be it in a classroom setting or online. These are text, video, sound, graphics, and animation. Using this multimedia is an effective way of nurturing the two balancing educational features, which are teaching and learning (Cabrera, 2013). To achieve learning goals, an effective and efficient teaching-learning process ought to be in place (Cabrera, 2013). Alongside with these two complementary features of education are the questions what and how. In learning, the content, and how it will be applied are two of the elements that are necessary to meet the learning end goal. These two questions, what are being reflected in the curriculum or the syllabus that is being used during how merely focuses on the methodology. Indeed, teaching and learning were affected through enhanced teaching pedagogies, faster access to information, and availability of a wider range of academic resources such as Internet by the use of multimedia technology (Thangarajathi & Enok, 2012). Mandernach (2009) articulated that there is considerable evidence indicating that a well-designed multimedia resource can improve learning and enhance achievement of leaning goals. According to Harper and Hedberg (1997), Sims (1998), and Shinde (2003), a primary and chief feature of a well-designed multimedia courseware is called the user interactivity. It was shown by researchers that learning with an interactive environment can produce successful teaching and learning system. Teaching and learning, if done effectively, can result in a quality learning outcome. These two can be done through the use of multimedia. Higher education that is being achieved by college students becomes more a reality when the use of multimedia and learning are combined. The content and how it will be taught are necessary to identify which multimedia will work best in a particular learning scenario. It improves the students learning involvement and engagement because an interactive visual image is being presented to them. Learning does not only go for the teaching alone. it goes hand in hand with multimedia. Multimedia has gone its far to be the material needed in acquiring learning. It is a mode of communication that includes text, graphics, sounds and the like. Through visualization such as presenting photo descriptions, a better learning process takes place than giving words, which sometimes, create more confusion (Mayer, as cited at Harvard Initiative for Learning and Teaching, 2014).Managing the students to keep themselves connected in multimedia is important so as to let them experience an active learning. Teachers, in a classroom setting, especially in an online learning context, can extend their efforts more to involve the students and be able to develop the opportunities for learning through different instructional strategies. an approach that they can integrate is the use of multimedia. Miller (2009) once said, Quality online multimedia can help to promote any number of pedagogical objectives, ranging from sparking student interest in the subject matter to possibly encouraging intergroup respect and appreciation. However, their most critical function in terms of cognitive learning appears to lie in their capacity to serve as representational applications for key course ideas. (pp. 395-423).He expressed the great impact of technology through having multimedia to the learners. Cabrera (2013) discovered that the multimedia being referred to goes to different forms, for example, having the type of visual and auditory, graphical images and the like from which may strengthen the students understanding and improve the students retention of information. As the pursuit of knowledge continues to unfold, different exciting modes of learning have come about. The traditional classroom setting has proven its maximum strength in providing quality education to learners (Miller, 2009). It has been an effective educational status quo up to date and will forever be a successful one (Genden, 2005). However, as time flies so fast, some changes have been an inevitable experience for each one who is the hunger for learning. One of these changes is the booming of learning through online. Various researchers have made studies examining the how effective multimedia is in learning. The studies suggest that those students who used computer-based multimedia instruction do well when it comes to the scores of their tests, than to those students who just have learning through the traditional classroom setup (Thangarajathi & Enok, 2012. Miller, 2009. & Cabrera, 2013. Genden, 2005).Online learning, or sometimes being referred to as distance education, is an educational medium of instruction through the use of Internet. Its objectives are aligned and as the same with the goals in a classroom setup, however, can be done anytime and anywhere. Moreover, the people behind this learning are experienced teachers who are also into an online system. Poe and Stassen () stated that online learning is most effective when delivered by teachers experienced in their subject matter. Fortunately, there are two processes that usually happen in an online learning environment. First, a more active, lively and reflective students are being produced. because it is an innovation that makes the interaction more exciting, the students tend to maximize their potential and enjoy the learning experience. Secondly, both the teachers and the students involve themselves in learning through technology usage, not to mention the familiarity that they would get from it. Computer Technology has gone so far in the field of education as the educators also improve themselves in applying them to their daily teaching activities. There are different factors to be considered to make an efficient use of multimedia that can help the students enjoy their learning opportunities. Knowing more about the Audience and the Use of Videos as a Tool An additional support is needed or a requirement when a new field or discipline will be introduced to the students. Cabrera (2013) said that considering the audience, their background, their culture and the like must be taken into consideration, individual differences as such. The needs of the different learning preferences will be met if there will be a familiarization of the audience. It will be a significant tool in order to present a variety of ways for new concepts. There are quite a lot of multimedia types that can be used such as images, videos, physical models, audio recordings and the like. Supporting this factor is through Constructivist Theory, where people make meaning out of their background knowledge. According to Tausend (), this theory is significant in an online learning setup for it helps the learners expand their knowledge and add up to their acquired knowledge. Showing video presentations can do well in adding knowledge to what has already been learned by the student. They can have an active learning, too. Constructivists support the idea that students must be involved in an active, positive, on purpose, real, and supportive learning for the attainment of effective learning. The Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt University has conducted research, supporting the constructivists argument. A video-based instruction was enhanced by them for the learners to be involved in the real-world situation. It was a fruitful research as they were able to show it was designed and used and how the students problem-solving skills were enhanced through reasoning and thinking (Hsieh et al., 2010).Chen (2012) stated that it is true how video, as one of the most influential virtual learning tool, enhance college learners comprehension because they actually see it, making them feel like part of the video presentation, resulting in better information retention. On this study, the target learners are the college students who are in an online learning setting. The teachers will not have a hard time to create a rapport towards the students if a particular multimedia mode is used. For instance, the word trainers will be a confusing word to both students who grew up in US and UK. In US, teachers would mean a fitness expert who guides the people in working out while, in UK, trainers would say shoes, sneakers specifically. The teacher can use a multimedia like an image of a trainer that he or she wants to reiterate. He or she can also use physical models and videos that show the sample of a teacher that he or she is referring to. Using Multimedia is a practical approach to solving difficulties that create gaps in communication (Chen, 2012). Aside from that, it serves as a bridge connecting the learners to other learners, like learning from other cultures. It has an impact on making the college students comprehend what the teacher wants to discuss to. Establishing Technology in a Learning Perspective Yamamoto, Kush, Lombard, and Hertzog (2010) pointed out that in any subject technology is considered to be a supporting tool to meet the learning end goal. However, both teachers and learners must be reminded that the time for learning content should not be dedicated to teaching the use of technology just for the sake of using it. An instruction planning should go first as they identify what the curricular objectives are and then look for a suitable multimedia tool that will support the whole process of meeting the curricular goal. The impact of having an appropriate multimedia tool to be used in an online classroom setting for college students can help them become more motivated. They will feel how their teacher works hard just to provide them the best incorporated multimedia to be used in their daily discussion. They will become more engaged, thus, feel that they are all part of the learning goals, that no one is being left behind. Focusing on the Instructional Design Both teachers and learners must be reminded that technology still does not run the educational system. Yes, it has advantages but still just a part of the education. it does not mean the whole thing. Computer Technology advancement may have been inclined in the success of the multimedia application in the educational field. it must not be the source of learning as always. It must be used only if it can support the course content and the learning of the students. Multimedia can also display negativity if it is being used improperly and unsuitable. It can mislead, confuse or even distract the students specifically the college students, wherein since they must be the ones who must experience higher learning for they are about to embark on a new chapter of their lives, as they look for a job and the like. The learning outcome, instructional objectives, especially the course goals must go hand in hand effectively through the course content design and not just on the accessibility of technology (Cabrera, 2013).Technology also fails at times. thats why learning should not merely rely on what it can offer. There should always be the strength of the content and how it will be applied even without technology. Genden (2005) agreed that all the uses of media must be well appraised and evaluated, improved by the instructional designer and lastly must be included into sound instructional design and development. Teachers must be reminded that the instructional design is not the technology itself. Learning must still come from teaching while it is being supported by the availability of technology. Technology for Support and not to Cause Distraction According to Cabrera (2013), it is best to say that enhancement learning can also be achieved with the help of multimedia. It makes any discussion clear, making the students understand the content clearly. However, multimedia can also lead to interruption that might stop the learning progress. For example, if an image presented to the students is of course not connected with the on-screen text or supplementary narration, conflict in comprehending the whole description might happen, resulting the students to have a challenging time while still trying to figure what it is about. Another example is a teacher who does a discussion coming from a text and reads it word-for-word. At the same time, the students read and listen to that same message and encounter too much cognitive weight (Cabrera, 2013).Technology, specifically the use of multimedia must support learning. meaningful and valuable content should be taught in a precise manner because the students need it, and it is a part of the curricular goals. The learners must not be distracted by the unnecessary information linked by multimedias inappropriate use. In fact, it must encourage the college students to be engaged more because distraction is a dilemma that no teacher can afford to experience. If college students in an online learning setting are presented with the correct content and proper multimedia as combined, they will be able to see what the real world can actually offer to them. The linking of course content and the application of multimedia must not give any discrepancy to avoid any learning interruptions. Multiple Representations Integration According to Yamamoto et al., (2010), in the field of online education, specifically in the subject of Mathematics, making connections between verbal, graphical images, numerical and algebraic expressions can be assisted by technology. Technology can raise a number of available representations of students and be able to develop them as well. For instance, the use of the graphing calculator, gives the students a chance to integrate verbal, graphical images, numerical and algebraic expressions in learning a specific content. Kamat and Shinde (2009) used some multimedia packages that are meant for the subjects. science, mathematics, geography, and history. This project was from the test on numbers of interactive multimedia packages for grade I to IV. A better interactive multimedia is better than those of the traditional educational methods, however still depends on classrooms and teachers using chalk and talk. Davies and Graff (2005) emphasized that technology and the change of the detailed set of courses that intend to develop students perceptive of calculus concepts, must be well utilized by teachers, for instance. They must also expand technical understanding in ways that are significant to the college learners. This advantage provides a positive impact to college students as they can make best use of the multimedia presented to them. They will be able to know more of the content because a lot of stimulating activities await them. Gradually Launch Multimedia Getting a trouble-free usage of the multimedia content is a part of a technological development in computer technology. Teachers, being the facilitator of learning, should add the use of multimedia one step at a time in a gradual process. For example, a teacher can have an audio, record it as part of the lesson every week, then it will be posted to a suitable content area in the Blackboard course every start of the week. college students can play it and listen on what lesson to expect in the next few weeks. Nevertheless, there will always be an exception to the rule, for the new teachers, they must be introduced to the use of multimedia with enough orientation for if not, they might be overwhelmed by it that can result in misuse of the multimedia (Cabrera, 2013).Aside from the overwhelmed that might be experienced by the teachers, college students who are busy with other matters will also experience it if they will be bombarded with technology usage. The use of technology must be incorporated gradually, so as to give the students time to learn one multimedia at a time. Asking feedback from other teachers who have had experienced multimedia successfully will assist the students learn more technical skills. Experience is the best teachers and having a feedback from someone who has successfully used multimedia is a helpful one (Chen, 2012). They can provide comments on the evaluation and usefulness of a particular multimedia material (Cabrera, 2013).Existing Multimedia are useful resources too Existing multimedia is a great reminder that it has already been used many times by different online classes (Chen, 2012). Having such resource can help both the teachers and students identify its effectiveness. As it indicated by Said (2007) interactive multimedia e-learning systems that are well-designed motivate the learners to have more valuable information. It is an important factor to have an active engagement in order to develop the learning process. Laying down a foundation of a design model of interactive multimedia e-learning system that provides active participation has been said in some attempts. Becoming More Interactive and Motivated According to Holzinger, Kickmeier-Rust, Wassertheurer, and Hessinger, (2009), the teaching and learning became more advanced and successful when a traditional lesson was used in an online setting using multimedia. The students become more interactive and motivated in knowing more of the lessons. Holzinger et al. discovered how comparable the effectiveness of the designed simulator and the conventional text lessons are. It was said the through the use of additional guidance to the developed simulator helps to progress the learning process. It deals with the simulation effects in discussing physiological models that are complex. These were taught to 96 students of college of Medicine Summary It is important to acknowledge that there are factors needed to be considered in order to identify if the multimedia content will work at its best. From the factors, the impact of multimedia in an online learning setup will be determined. Through an application of multimedia, innovative course topics and concepts that are appropriate in online discussions, presented in real time or recorded, evaluation of the readings and lecture transcripts that are already allocated to them, examination of imagery visually like photographs, videos, drawings, animation or more of actual physical models, will be introduced to the students. Students interaction with new topics and ideas will be prioritized through computer simulation (Cabrera, 2013).Multimedia is a helpful tool in meeting the learning goals. Including it as part of the educational system can ease the difficulty of providing clear comprehension to students, especially to those who are in college. However, both teachers and students must be reminded that multimedia should be used appropriately, for if not, negativity will be encountered. Alongside with that, there are factors to be considered. Knowing more of the audience and the use of Videos as a tool, Establishing Technology in a Learning Perspective, Focusing on the Instructional Design, Technology for support and not to cause distraction, Multiple Representations Integration, Gradually Launch Multimedia, Asking Feedback from Other Teachers who have had experienced Multimedia successfully, Existing Multimedia are useful resources too and the Evaluation of the College Students. These factors are part of the multimedia content in order to attain the expected learning outcome. These factors also go together with teaching and learning. The teacher must never forget that learning still goes with the idea of how the content will be implemented. Education is a process. it will not be achieved without the work of teaching learning and the technology specifically the multimedia content. Today, the quest for the use of technology and innovation in an educational setting continues. Having such concept, the use of technological tools in order to learn is useful in educational technology. It targets a selection of gears, and the most commonly used is the multimedia. The growth of multimedia in the educational field has picked up the pace for the past few years and until now, its constant development has been a mindset to everyone. Time flies that the old days of communication modes such as audio-visual are long gone. Now, as the present world changes rapidly, the field of education has been experiencing it so, in particular, media services are taken into consideration, and one of these services is multimedia. REFERENCES Cabrera, D. (2013). Integrating multimedia in your course. Retrieved from http://facdevblog.niu.edu/integrating-multimedia-in-your-course.Chen, Y. T. (2012). The effect of thematic video-based instruction on learning and motivation in e-learning. International Journal of Physical Sciences, .7(6), 957-965.Davies, J., & Graff, M. (2005). Performance in eLearning: Online participation and student grades. British Journal of Educational Technology, .36(4), 657-663.Genden, S. (2005). The use of multimedia in online distance learning. Retrieved from http://www.gendendesign.net/pdfs/MultimediaUse.pdfHarvard Initiative for Learning and Teaching. (2014). Principles for multimedia learning with Richard E. Mayer. Retrieved from http://hilt.harvard.edu/blog/principles-multimedia-learning-richard-e-mayer. Harper, B., & Hedberg, J. (1997). Creating motivating interactive learning environments: A constructivist view. Paper presented at ASCILITE. Retrieved from http://ascilite.org.au/conferences/perth97/papers/Harper/Harper.html Holzinger, A., Kickmeier-Rust, M., Wassertheurer, S. & Hessinger, M. (2009). Learning performance with interactive. Simulations in medical education: Lessons learned from results of learning complex physiological models with the HAEMOdynamics Simulator, Computers & Education, 52(2), 292301. Hsieh, H.L., Wu, J.Y., Lai, P., Chang, S.K., Chen, T.Y., & Kao, W.J. (2010). The effect of movie viewing on learning English as a foreign language. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(4), 121-132. Kamat, V., & Shinde, J. (2009). Enrichment of the learning experience of rural children through interactive multimedia, the pan-commonwealth forum on open learning, Department of Computer Information Systems, Yarmouk University, Irbid: Jordan. Mandernach, J. (2009). Effect of instructor-personalized multimedia in the online classroom. Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/606/1263Miller, M.V. (2009). Integrating online multimedia into college course and classroom: With application to the social sciences. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 5(2), 395-423. Nusir, S., Alsmadi, I., Al-Kabi, M. & Sharadah, F. (2012). Acta didactica napocensia. Studying the impact of using multimedia interactive programs at children ability to learn basic Math skills. Retrieved from http://dppd.ubbcluj.ro/adn/article_5_2_3.pdf Poe, M., & Stassen, M., (). Teaching and learning online: Communication, community, and assessment. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts. Said, N. S. (2007). Towards a model of engagement designing multimedia application for children, Digital Learning, 3(1), 133-139. Sankey, M.D., Birch, D., & Gardiner, M.W. (2011). The impact of multiple representations of content using multimedia on learning outcomes across learning styles and modal preferences. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), 7(3), 18-35. Shinde, J. (2003). Effectiveness of multimedia CAI package with reference to levels of interactivity and learning styles. Masters Thesis. SNDT Womens University, Mumbai. Sims, R. (1998). Interactivity for effective educational communication and engagement during technology-based and online learning in McBeath, McLoughlin & Atkinson (ends) Planning for Progress, Partnership and Profit. Proceedings EdTech98. Srivastava, S. (2012). A study of multimedia & its impact on students attitude. IEEE Explore Digital Library. Retrieved from http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6208606&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6208606Tausend, J. (). Effects of interactive multimedia in e-learning on learners and developers. Retrieved fromhttps://julietausend.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/effects-of-multimedia-on-elearning.pdfThangarajathi, S. Enok, J. (2012). Impact of Multimedia in Teaching and Learning. Retrieved fromhttp://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/78383643/impact-multimedia-teaching-learningWhitton, N. (2009). Review of the research literature on the impact of multimedia revision. Manchester metropolitan university. Web Materials. Retrieved from http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/aboutthebbc/insidethebbc/whatwedo/learning/audienceresearch/research_report.pdfYamamoto, J., Kush, J., Lombard, R., & Hertzog, C. J. (2010). Technology implementation and teacher education: Reflective models. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.
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