Compose a 500 words assignment on listening the mp3 file. 13 March Summary of the lecture Hand made pottery and ceramics are similar. West hasretrieved the idea and design of the pottery from the East, and this marks the beginning of the development of the relations of the Indus Valley with the outside. With time, cotton textile became a very important item of local consumption in the Indus Valley and of trade. The Indus Valley exhibited a shift from the wild to the domesticated animals for diet and agricultural use. Cattle are of huge significance in the Indus Valley both as a diet and as a symbol of representation. Indus Valley had a fully established farming community by the 7th millennium BC. This formed the basis of civilization of the Indus Valley. 1500 BC marks the last known evidence of this cultural development. The regionalization era is a period in which regional differences can be recognized while the integration era unites all these differences. Uniformity was a very strong feature of the whole of the Indus Valley. Everything was same all across the Valley ranging from pottery to architecture. This indicates a highly centralized administration. The final stage of the Indus Valley civilization developed at a very inconsistent speed. The only evidence we have today to study the Indus Valley is the material evidence. Mohenjodaro and Harappa are two of the most well studied cities in the Indus Valley civilization, and are thus the most important. Food in the Indus Valley was largely produced from barley and wheat. Foods include chicken, fish, chickpeas, sesame, and grapes, juju and dates. Mud-bricks and fire-bricks were used in architecture. Use of mud-brick was general while that of fire-brick was particular. Indus Valley civilization was very strong at water management. Large water-holding tanks can be seen in the settlements. The train systems are particular characteristics of their landscapes. Highly stylized figurines made in soft clay and beadwork is particular skills of the Indus Valley civilization. Soft stone, lattice and turquoise are important in terms of stone work. Markets existed and commerce took place at the entrance to big urban centers of the Indus Valley. The Indus Valley had unique weight standards. Metal, typically copper and bronze became very common in the later stages of the civilization. Very little is known about the religion of people of the Indus Valley civilization. Developments in regional locations started in 4000 BC which was when the regionalization era commenced. Of all the different cities, Mehrgarh was the center of technological advancement in the Indus Valley civilization. Wheel made pottery and metallurgy emerged at this time. Plazas and open areas were paved in mud-brick as can be seen in Balakot. Mud-brick buildings can also be seen in Kalibangan. Water-maintenance systems were built in fire-bricks. Pre-urban phase. 2600-3200 BC is the second part of the regionalization era marks further significant developments. Around 500 settlements are known for this period, 70% of which are smaller than 4 hectares. No evidence of fortification is found anywhere except Kalibangan. There were no elites in this period. Over 1500 sites are known for the integration period. The change from the regionalization to the integration era was erratic and significant.
Listening the mp3 file
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