Complete 9 pages APA formatted article: Managing and Leading People across Borders. This paper aims at demonstrating how multinationals can manage and lead people across the border as well as how the expatriates can be made to improve on their productivity through proper hiring and training them among other motivational factors. Geert Hofstede analysis Due to the use of technology people who are from different workplace does interact in many ways since the world has been globalised. Hofstede cultural dimension theory tries to explain how people from different cultures to communicate and intermingle together due to technology. To explain the theory, Hofstede carried research on employees and was put in five dimensions of culture. Power distance (PD) Power distance explains how imbalance power exists to individuals either in firms or even in a homestead. For example, high power distance in the society encourages for unequal distribution of power while a low PD encourages equal power sharing among the members (Chulman, 1999). In a country like Malaysia, a high PD exists among the companies and thus the companies are centralized and management is under strong hierarchical powers from top management to lower level. Individualism (IDV) High individualism shows how one has a loose connection to others and this can also be related in countries which have high IDV meaning the countries have no strong connection with other countries. Low IDV indicates strongly groups among the countries or individual who work together for a common goal (Rutherford, 1990). High IDV indicates that a country like the US has one of characteristic that it enjoys challenges and in turn, it will have to be rewarded due to the hard work and enjoyment of freedom since it will base its challenges as personal and will not involve other stakeholders. Masculinity (MAS) In a country like Japan male is regarded as tough due to traditions and seen as superior to females since they are the provider in the families. In high MAS a female working in the firm is underrated and thus treated as feminine while in low MAS male and female works together without looking at the professionalism of individuals. The traditions are erased in the society and thus a female can do what a male can do. Uncertainty/Avoidance Index (UAI) Uncertainty considers how the individual in the society feel when they are in an unknown situation. In high UAI, individual tries to avoid as much as possible and when the situation is unknown they are emotional (Jonathan, 2011). In low UAI, individuals are ready to risk and change is regarded as important to the growth of firms. An individual is concerned with long term goals and not what is currently taking place. Long term orientation (LTO) This shows how traditions to the society still exist up to date. For example, in high LTO families are regarded as the root of the society, grandparents and men are the most respected and authority come from them (Davis, 2004). Education is a must to the society while low LTO encourages individual to be more creative and respect must be shown to the others in the society. According to Hofstede the theory is important and should be practised by individuals in their life. Trompenaars theory The theory is based on understanding and how one can manage cultural differences. . Universalism is based on individual ownership of property and can be shared when one is willing while particularism is state ownership of property where it is shared equally.
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