Motivation and Work Design

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Motivation and Work Design. The essay is to be 8 pages with three to five sources, with in-text citations and a reference page.This paper discusses the motivators’ significance and outline ways by which employers can design job roles to take account of individual motivations.Many motivational theories exist that offer bases for understanding effects of motivational factors and strategies for moderating the effects as well as ways for monitoring effects of the factors. Theory X and theory Y, as McGregor offers, is one of such theories. The theory establishes assumptions on human behavior to develop a framework for understanding people in a work environment and to influence actions and behavior of the people towards desired outcomes. Theory X assumes that people are not willing to conform to expectations and calls for managers and organizations’ control of people for achievement of objectives. It therefore suggests guidelines that can be attained through push factors such as punitive measures for failure to comply. Theory Y however argues for responsible behavior and actions in which people can align themselves to set goals in their organizations and work towards realization of the goals (Saiyadain 2009, p. 167).According to Theory X, people do not like work and this means that external influence is necessary to influence completion of desired works. The theory also assumes that people are less ambitious and do not like responsibilities. Instead, they prefer to work under control. In addition, people lack creativity into completing tasks and generating solutions into problems to support the postulate of necessity of external influence. In recognition of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, Theory X assumes that people are motivated at “physiological and safety levels” (Saiyadain 2009, p. 167). Intimidation is further necessary on people in order to ensure achievement or objectives. A consideration of Theory Y assumptions however recognizes people’s willingness to work provided that suitable conditions exist. Contrary to external pressure to influencing organizational

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