Create a thesis and an outline on New Developments in Steel. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is required. I will examine the advantages of steel in bridge construction, the need for special steel in the railways, properties of HPS and recent development in HPS. Indian railways are the case study for this report.There are different types of bridges which total 120,000 bridges in the Indian Railways comprised of about two bridges in each kilometre per route. This can be broken down into 20% of the girder bridges, 19% of the arch bridges, 23% slab culverts, 19% pipe culverts, and other types account for about 19% (SHEN & CHAN, 2005). It is worth noting that about half of the build Indian railways have been there for about 100 years. Despite the fact that about a thousand bridges are renovated and/or rebuilt yearly, the build-up is so large. Such old railways face a lot of challenges that include growing old and weariness, intensified loading calibre for the axle cargo, intensified longitudinal cargo, reassembling metre scale bridges for extensive scale work, renewal of the initial steel girders, and corrosion drawbacks near the coastal areas (SHEN & CHAN, 2005).High numbers of girder bridges made up of steel are characterised by heterogeneous composition since early steel requires frequent attention for their upkeep. The early steel girder bridges are those bridges that were constructed before 1905. In those moments, there were high percentages of phosphorous and steel than the present-day ones. High contents of sulphur and phosphorous cause brittle failures of steel structures. The government has taken steps to replace such bridges (LULA, 1985).There has been a high improvement in steel making technologies all over the world for the last few years in terms of metallurgical progresses and rolling and heat treatment process growths. .
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