What is culture?

by | Nov 17, 2021 | Homework Help

Study Guide for Exam #2- ESSAY QUESTIONS 1. What is culture? Discuss why culture provides a taken-for-granted orientation to life and explain how this relates to ethnocentrism and cultural relativism. Use the articles by Harris and the Fernea’s to support. A. Refer to my first lecture on culture. Discuss the culture and discuss the parameters within which sociologist study culture. What are the main components? B. Why is it that we tend to take culture for-granted? Link how we take culture for-granted directly to ethnocentrism (define). Discuss and define cultural relativism as the opposite of ethnocentrism. Give examples to show you understand the differences between the two using the at least one course article. Use concepts like culture shock to support where appropriate.   2. Sociologists use the works of Charles Cooley, George Herbert Mead and Ervin Goffman to explain the theories and ideas relating to socialization and symbolic interactionism. Explain the main ideas behind their theories as they relate to the development of the self. A. What is socialization? How does it relate to social interaction and the creation of social reality? B. Discuss Cooley and Looking-Glass Self. Three processes. C. Discuss Mead and Taking the Role of the Other. Three stages in life. Connect I amd Me. D. Discuss Goffman and Dramaturgical Analysis. Impression Management, front stage, back stage, and saving face. Remember to focus on main ideas and also to answer: What does the theory tell us about why people do what they do? No need to connect articles here.  3. When investigating the topic of macrosociology, we identified two major components of macrosociology namely societies and social structure. What is a social structure and how do social structures help us understand and explain social behavior? Be sure to discuss the components of a social structure and apply an example. Make sure you understand the connection between microsociology and macrosociology. A. What is macrosociology? Connect societies and social structures to your discussion of macrosociology to emphasize how social structures help us understand social behavior. You have the definition for all these terms. B. What are the five parts of a social structure? How is microsociology connected to macrosociology (process and structures)? Connect one article to the discussion from the section of macrosociology. 4. Sociology contends that society is socially constructed and social behaviors and attitudes, to a large extent, have to do with the individual as a social being and a product of his or her environment. Use the concept of “the social construction of reality” to explain the above. How does the social construction of reality apply to gender? Remember to discuss the subjective and objective elements of “reality.” A. What is the social construction of reality? Discuss the process though which reality is created through social interaction. How does socialization make us human? B. How is gender socially constructed through social interaction? Gendered behavior has changed, why? Use the article called “The Social Construction of Reality” to support briefly.C. Do we rely more on the objective elements or subjective to construct reality? Discuss what I meant by objective and subjective elements. Remember to give an example of how reality is constructed (example, spit/saliva or other). 5. Conformity in society plays an important role in keeping things in order. However, sociologists have noted that conformity, as a group process, can also produce some consistent results. What does the Ash study inform us about our behavior in groups? What did the Milgram study conclude about our response to authority? A. What is conformity and what is obedience? Why are they a part of our everyday group interactions? B. Asch Study: What was the study about? Results (some percentages). So what? Why is the study sociologically significant? What does it tell us about group dynamics and behaviors in groups? Here you connect the Asch Expirment and conformity to group solidarity. C.  Milgram Experiment: What was the study about? Results (some percentages). So what? Why is the study sociologically significant? What does it tell us about group dynamics and behaviors in groups? Here you connect the Milgram Expirment and obedience to group solidarity. Why do we often obey in our day-to-day activities? D. Define and discuss “group think” and “group polarization.” Use course definitions, don’t make up definitions. Note, group think goes well with the Asch Expirement and group polarization compliments the Milgram Expirement.

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